FPGA Mining: Why cooling solutions matter - The Cryptonomist
Cryptocurrency Mining: How to Find the Best Coin to Mine ...
5 Best Bitcoin Mining Hardware ASIC Machines (2020 Rigs)
Effects of ETC moving to SHA3
0xBitcoin might experience some benefits from ETC's recent decision to go to SHA3. For one thing, if ETC developers turn their minds toward SHA3 GPU mining, it seems likely that they'll be very interested in the optimization work already done by Lt. Tofu and Azlehria on Cosmic and Nabiki. But they may also spot additional optimizations, which could most likely be ported back into our miners! For another thing, since ETC has a larger community than 0xBitcoin's, it's likely that they have people with very diverse skills. As they turn their minds toward SHA3 on FPGAs, I anticipate they will be choosing FPGA boards and writing software for them that probably will not be very difficult to alter to mine 0xBitcoin! Practically speaking, this may result in a new era of mining where a respectable hash rate can be achieved with much less electricity expense. Basically, if people with EE or hardware development backgrounds in the ETC community pin down some of the variables involved, like development board, it seems very likely that we will be able to get FPGAs mining 0xBitcoin quickly. We recently exchanged some nice words with Alex Tsankov. He revealed he is doing work that may allow merge mining ETC and other projects like 0xBitcoin. I don't know how good this will be, but it's hard for me to see how this could be a bad thing. It's really great to have nice words from Alex, because he seems like a very smart dude who is very open to collaboration. I have joined the ETC Discord (edit: link removed for just-Reddit-things reasons, you'll have no trouble finding it) and will be watching for opportunities to tell people there about our miners if they don't know, and watching for info about their developments on SHA3 miners.
Source: https://www.facebook.com/electroneum/posts/2030562537205714 Hi Everyone! ALL ELECTRONEUM NODE OWNERS MUST UPDATE THEIR SOFTWARE BY BLOCK 324500 (approx. 36 hours from now – this is an URGENT UPDATE – PLEASE SHARE THIS INFORMATION) We have an urgent software update below for anyone who runs a full Electroneum Node. If you don’t know what a node is , don’t worry! You won’t need to do anything. We also have a VERY exciting update about an upcoming listing on a top 10 exchange. How will I mine Electroneum after this update? Instant Payment vendor API is open for BETA applicants.How can ETN change the world? Please note that nothing in this message refers to MOBILE MINING – we are referring to the underlying blockchain miners. Urgent Electroneum Node / RPC / Command Line Wallet Update ALL ELECTRONEUM NODE OWNERS MUST UPDATE THEIR SOFTWARE BY BLOCK 324500 (approx. 36 hours from now – this is an URGENT UPDATE – PLEASE SHARE THIS INFORMATION) https://github.com/electron…/electroneum/releases/…/v22.214.171.124 It’s only been a few short days since I made a video and said “our fork went well! We’re ready for 20m Users!”. The fork was a great success, from a technical standpoint. Unfortunately, we never got back the number of GPU miners that are needed to ensure our network runs smoothly and has stable block emission. A new phenomenon has emerged where a number of users are mining Electroneum in waves. They come on and then leave after a few hours in a coordinated manner to mine ETN in a completely selfish way. We can’t blame people for maximizing their profit, but we have not built up the amount of “hashing power” that is required to make this impossible and create the stability we need in the network. This has left us at risk. As such, we have to take urgent action to stabilise our network and protect the Electroneum community. Coinbene Listing Electroneum & our network stability We have formally agreed and signed contracts to be listed in July on the AWESOME, top 10, cryptocurrency exchange https://Coinbene.com & https://Coinbene.com.br Coinbene have 1.5m active users and are a GREAT fit for Electroneum. Their primary markets are Latin America and Asia – which fits perfectly with Electroneum’s customer base. They have seen enormous growth over the last few months and have been very positive about the Electroneum Project. Whilst this is great news, we will need much more hashing power to ensure we have network stability for our listing on this exchange, so we’ve taken the decision that we can’t wait any longer for GPU miners to return to us and we must run an urgent software update to re-introduce ASIC mining to Electroneum. This is a very positive move for Electroneum. A great deal of Bitcoin’s trust and appeal is from the enormous hashing power and distribution of miners on the network. Bitcoin & LiteCoin have embraced ASICs and we feel that it is the right thing for Electroneum to do the same. ASICS are becoming more prevalent, they cost considerably less to run than a GPU rig and use a fraction of the electricity. We are going to encourage more ASIC ownership and take our hashing rate up to (and beyond) the enormous levels of hashing power that we had before the May fork. There is a further development. The first generation of hardware called an FPGA miner is arriving during 2018 and they make ANTI-ASIC capabilities a thing of the past, as they circumvent the slow delivery time of new ASICs by being re-programmable. If we are ready to embrace these rather than fight them, our network hashing power is increased further and our network stability and security is further enhanced. Because ASICS run cooler, quieter and use a fraction of GPU rig power, they are suitable for MORE people to run in their homes. If you are interested, a search of “Cryptonight ASIC miner” in Google or Ebay will find the equipment needed to mine Electroneum. You will need to be reasonably technical to achieve this! Having a stable network is absolutely key to both delivering mass adoption and to ensure we have a great relationship with the great exchanges that we’re already listed with, and to encourage more of the larger exchanges to see Electroneum as a coin that they want on board. How will I mine Electroneum after this update? If you are a mobile miner – nothing changes. If you are a GPU or ASIC miner then you’ll need to connect to an Electroneum pool but it is important to note that you will need to change your ALGORITHM. You MUST use the algorithm “Cryptonight” and NOT “Electroneum” or “CryptonightV7”. This will ensure your device works after the update. We will communicate this to all pools, but if you are a member of a mining pool – PLEASE LET THE ADMINS KNOW ABOUT THIS CRITICAL UPDATE. They must update their pool node by block 324500, which is only around 36 hours away. Instant Payment vendor API is open for BETA applicants Instant Cryptocurrency Payments via smart phone has always been a critical part of what Electroneum required to achieve mass market adoption. It’s never been done, but 9 short months after our ICO we are excited to announce that we have opened to the doors to vendors who would like to accept payment via Electroneum. The application is to be part of the BETA rollout of instant payment, but will operate on the live blockchain with real ETN! If you run a business or know someone who does – why not recommend they apply to accept ETN. The Press and Marketing opportunities for the first, in any sector, to accept cryptocurrency are huge! Be part of the instant payment API BETA program by completing this form: https://docs.google.com/…/1FAIpQLSfKTwWT7W4ltmApZO…/viewform How can ETN change the world? Instant payment does far more than allow people to pay for their coffee with crypto instead of their VISA card. If you’d like to know more about Electroneum’s future I suggest you read a fantastic article that describes its coming role in the world, by fellow director Chris Gorman OBE (Officer of the British Empire – awarded by the Queen of England!): https://www.linkedin.com/…/how-cryptocurrency-enable-financ… Electroneum has one of the largest of all cryptocurrency communities and it is made up of passionate and amazing people. With your support and world changing things we have coming out over the next few weeks, we can use this update to make our blockchain foundation secure and lead the world in mobile cryptocurrency. I'm sure you agree that we've been through some challenging times which our team have always dealt with and learned from. The strength and support from our community and many of our goals becoming a reality combined with this blockchain update will give us the perfect foundation to deliver the Electroneum vision that we all share. Thanks for taking the time to read this long message. Have a great day everyone, Richard Ells Founder, Electroneum.com
Hello, I’ve been trying to decide on a FPGA development board, and have only been able to find posts and Reddit threads from 4-5 years ago. So I wanted to start a new thread and ask about the best “mid-range” FGPA development board in 2018. (Price range $100-$300.) I started with this Quora answer about FPGA boards, from 2013. The Altera DE1 sounded good. Then I looked through the Terasic DE boards. Then I found this Reddit thread from 2014, asking about the DE1-SoC vs the Cyclone V GX Starter Kit: https://www.reddit.com/FPGA/comments/1xsk6w/cyclone_v_gx_starter_kit_vs_de1soc_board/ (I was also leaning towards the DE1-SoC.) Anyway, I thought I better ask here, because there are probably some new things to be aware of in 2018. I’m completely new to FPGAs and VHDL, but I have experience with electronics/microcontrollers/programming. My goal is to start with some basic soft-core processors. I want to get some C / Rust programs compiling and running on my own CPU designs. I also want to play around with different instruction sets, and maybe start experimenting with asynchronous circuits (e.g. clock-less CPUs) Also I don’t know if this is possible, but I’d like to experiment with ternary computing, or work with analog signals instead of purely digital logic. EDIT: I just realized that you would call those FPAAs, i.e. “analog” instead of “gate”. Would be cool if there was a dev board that also had an FPAA, but no problem if not. EDIT 2: I also realized why "analog signals on an FPGA" doesn't make any sense, because of how LUTs work. They emulate boolean logic with a lookup table, and the table can only store 0s and 1s. So there's no way to emulate a transistor in an intermediate state. I'll just have play around with some transistors on a breadboard. UPDATE: I've put together a table with some of the best options:
A very simple FPGA development board that plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so you have a "backup" hard-core CPU that can control networking, etc. Supports a huge range of pmod accessories. You can write a program/circuit so that the Raspberry Pi CPU and the FPGA work together, similar to a SoC. Proprietary bitstream is fully reverse engineered and supported by Project IceStorm, and there is an open-source toolchain that can compile your hardware design to bitstream. Has everything you need to start experimenting with FPGAs.
Xilinx Zynq 7-Series SoC - ARM Cortex-A9 processor, and Artix-7 FPGA. 125 IO pins. 1GB DDR2 RAM. Texas Instruments WiLink 8 wireless module for 802.11n Wi-Fi and Bluetooth 4.1. No LEDs or buttons, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard. If you want to use a baseboard, you'll need a snickerdoodle black ($195) with the pins in the "down" orientation. (E.g. The "breakyBreaky breakout board" ($49) or piSmasher SBC ($195)). The snickerdoodle one only comes with pins in the "up" orientation and doesn't support any baseboards. But you can still plug the jumpers into the pins and wire up things on a breadboard.
Has one of the latest Xilinx SoCs. 2 GB (512M x32) LPDDR4 Memory. Wi-Fi / Bluetooth. Mini DisplayPort. 1x USB 3.0 type Micro-B, 2x USB 3.0 Type A. Audio I/O. Four user-controllable LEDs. No buttons and limited LEDs, but easy to wire up your own on a breadboard
Xilinx Zynq 7000 SoC (ARM Cortex-A9, 7-series FPGA.) 1 GB DDR3 RAM. A few switches, push buttons, and LEDs. USB and Ethernet. Audio in/out ports. HDMI source + sink with CEC. 8 Total Processor I/O, 40 Total FPGA I/O. Also a faster version for $299 (Zybo Z7-20).
Same as DE10-Standard, but not as many peripherals, buttons, LEDs, etc.
icoBoard ($100). (Buy it here.) The icoBoard plugs into a Raspberry Pi, so it's similar to having a SoC. The iCE40-HX8K chip comes with 7,680 LUTs (logic elements.) This means that after you learn the basics and create some simple circuits, you'll also have enough logic elements to run the VexRiscv soft-core CPU (the lightweight Murax SoC.) The icoBoard also supports a huge range of pluggable pmod accessories:
numato Mimas A7 ($149). An excellent development board with a Xilinx Artix 7 FPGA, so you can play with a bigger / faster FPGA and run a full RISC-V soft-core with all the options enabled, and a much higher clock speed. (The iCE40 FPGAs are a bit slow and small.)
I ordered a iCE40-HX8K Breakout Board to try out the IceStorm open source tooling. (I would have ordered an icoBoard if I had found it earlier.) I also bought a numato Mimas A7 so that I could experiment with the Artix 7 FPGA and Xilinx software (Vivado Design Suite.)
What can I do with an FPGA? / How many LUTs do I need?
VexRiscv is "A FPGA friendly 32 bit RISC-V CPU implementation." This is a RISC-V implementation written in SpinalHDL. VexRiscv has a lot of plugin and configuration options. The Murax SoC is a very light SoC that can run on an iCE40-HX8k (but probably not the 1k FPGA that only has 1,280 LUTs). The Briey SoC only runs on Xilinx or Altera FPGAs.
Technical Cryptonight Discussion: What about low-latency RAM (RLDRAM 3, QDR-IV, or HMC) + ASICs?
The Cryptonight algorithm is described as ASIC resistant, in particular because of one feature:
A megabyte of internal memory is almost unacceptable for the modern ASICs.
EDIT: Each instance of Cryptonight requires 2MB of RAM. Therefore, any Cryptonight multi-processor is required to have 2MB per instance. Since CPUs are incredibly well loaded with RAM (ie: 32MB L3 on Threadripper, 16 L3 on Ryzen, and plenty of L2+L3 on Skylake Servers), it seems unlikely that ASICs would be able to compete well vs CPUs. In fact, a large number of people seem to be incredibly confident in Cryptonight's ASIC resistance. And indeed, anyone who knows how standard DDR4 works knows that DDR4 is unacceptable for Cryptonight. GDDR5 similarly doesn't look like a very good technology for Cryptonight, focusing on high-bandwidth instead of latency. Which suggests only an ASIC RAM would be able to handle the 2MB that Cryptonight uses. Solid argument, but it seems to be missing a critical point of analysis from my eyes. What about "exotic" RAM, like RLDRAM3 ?? Or even QDR-IV?
QDR-IV SRAM is absurdly expensive. However, its a good example of "exotic RAM" that is available on the marketplace. I'm focusing on it however because QDR-IV is really simple to describe. QDR-IV costs roughly $290 for 16Mbit x 18 bits. It is true Static-RAM. 18-bits are for 8-bits per byte + 1 parity bit, because QDR-IV is usually designed for high-speed routers. QDR-IV has none of the speed or latency issues with DDR4 RAM. There are no "banks", there are no "refreshes", there are no "obliterate the data as you load into sense amplifiers". There's no "auto-charge" as you load the data from the sense-amps back into the capacitors. Anything that could have caused latency issues is gone. QDR-IV is about as fast as you can get latency-wise. Every clock cycle, you specify an address, and QDR-IV will generate a response every clock cycle. In fact, QDR means "quad data rate" as the SRAM generates 2-reads and 2-writes per clock cycle. There is a slight amount of latency: 8-clock cycles for reads (7.5nanoseconds), and 5-clock cycles for writes (4.6nanoseconds). For those keeping track at home: AMD Zen's L3 cache has a latency of 40 clocks: aka 10nanoseconds at 4GHz Basically, QDR-IV BEATS the L3 latency of modern CPUs. And we haven't even begun to talk software or ASIC optimizations yet.
CPU inefficiencies for Cryptonight
Now, if that weren't bad enough... CPUs have a few problems with the Cryptonight algorithm.
AMD Zen and Intel Skylake CPUs transfer from L3 -> L2 -> L1 cache. Each of these transfers are in 64-byte chunks. Cryptonight only uses 16 of these bytes. This means that 75% of L3 cache bandwidth is wasted on 48-bytes that would never be used per inner-loop of Cryptonight. An ASIC would transfer only 16-bytes at a time, instantly increasing the RAM's speed by 4-fold.
AES-NI instructions on Ryzen / Threadripper can only be done one-per-core. This means a 16-core Threadripper can at most perform 16 AES encryptions per clock tick. An ASIC can perform as many as you'd like, up to the speed of the RAM.
CPUs waste a ton of energy: there's L1 and L2 caches which do NOTHING in Cryptonight. There are floating-point units, memory controllers, and more. An ASIC which strips things out to only the bare necessities (basically: AES for Cryptonight core) would be way more power efficient, even at ancient 65nm or 90nm designs.
QDR-IV and RLDRAM3 still have latency involved. Assuming 8-clocks of latency, the naive access pattern would be:
This isn't very efficient: the RAM sits around waiting. Even with "latency reduced" RAM, you can see that the RAM still isn't doing very much. In fact, this is why people thought Cryptonight was safe against ASICs. But what if we instead ran four instances in parallel? That way, there is always data flowing.
Cryptonight #1 Read
Cryptonight #2 Read
Cryptonight #3 Read
Cryptonight #4 Read
Cryptonight #1 Write
Cryptonight #2 Write
Cryptonight #3 Write
Cryptonight #4 Write
Cryptonight #1 Read #2
Cryptonight #2 Read #2
Cryptonight #3 Read #2
Cryptonight #4 Read #2
Cryptonight #1 Write #2
Cryptonight #2 Write #2
Cryptonight #3 Write #2
Cryptonight #4 Write #2
Notice: we're doing 4x the Cryptonight in the same amount of time. Now imagine if the stalls were COMPLETELY gone. DDR4 CANNOT do this. And that's why most people thought ASICs were impossible for Cryptonight. Unfortunately, RLDRAM3 and QDR-IV can accomplish this kind of pipelining. In fact, that's what they were designed for.
As good as QDR-IV RAM is, its way too expensive. RLDRAM3 is almost as fast, but is way more complicated to use and describe. Due to the lower cost of RLDRAM3 however, I'd assume any ASIC for CryptoNight would use RLDRAM3 instead of the simpler QDR-IV. RLDRAM3 32Mbit x36 bits costs $180 at quantities == 1, and would support up to 64-Parallel Cryptonight instances (In contrast, a $800 AMD 1950x Threadripper supports 16 at the best). Such a design would basically operate at the maximum speed of RLDRAM3. In the case of x36-bit bus and 2133MT/s, we're talking about 2133 / (Burst Length4 x 4 read/writes x 524288 inner loop) == 254 Full Cryptonight Hashes per Second. 254 Hashes per second sounds low, and it is. But we're talking about literally a two-chip design here. 1-chip for RAM, 1-chip for the ASIC/AES stuff. Such a design would consume no more than 5 Watts. If you were to replicate the ~5W design 60-times, you'd get 15240 Hash/second at 300 Watts.
Depending on cost calculations, going cheaper and "making more" might be a better idea. RLDRAM2 is widely available at only $32 per chip at 800 MT/s. Such a design would theoretically support 800 / 4x4x524288 == 95 Cryptonight Hashes per second. The scary part: The RLDRAM2 chip there only uses 1W of power. Together, you get 5 Watts again as a reasonable power-estimate. x60 would be 5700 Hashes/second at 300 Watts. Here's Micron's whitepaper on RLDRAM2: https://www.micron.com/~/media/documents/products/technical-note/dram/tn4902.pdf . RLDRAM3 is the same but denser, faster, and more power efficient.
Hybrid Cube Memory
Hybrid Cube Memory is "stacked RAM" designed for low latency. As far as I can tell, Hybrid Cube memory allows an insane amount of parallelism and pipelining. It'd be the future of an ASIC Cryptonight design. The existence of Hybrid Cube Memory is more about "Generation 2" or later. In effect, it demonstrates that future designs can be lower-power and give higher-speed.
The overall board design would be the ASIC, which would be a simple pipelined AES ASIC that talks with RLDRAM3 ($180) or RLDRAM2 ($30). Its hard for me to estimate an ASIC's cost without the right tools or design. But a multi-project wafer like MOSIS offers "cheap" access to 14nm and 22nm nodes. Rumor is that this is roughly $100k per run for ~40 dies, suitable for research-and-development. Mass production would require further investments, but mass production at the ~65nm node is rumored to be in the single-digit $$millions or maybe even just 6-figures or so. So realistically speaking: it'd take ~$10 Million investment + a talented engineer (or team of engineers) who are familiar with RLDRAM3, PCIe 3.0, ASIC design, AES, and Cryptonight to build an ASIC.
Current CPUs waste 75% of L3 bandwidth because they transfer 64-bytes per cache-line, but only use 16-bytes per inner-loop of CryptoNight.
Low-latency RAM exists for only $200 for ~128MB (aka: 64-parallel instances of 2MB Cryptonight). Such RAM has an estimated speed of 254 Hash/second (RLDRAM 3) or 95 Hash/second (Cheaper and older RLDRAM 2)
ASICs are therefore not going to be capital friendly: between the higher costs, the ASIC investment, and the literally millions of dollars needed for mass production, this would be a project that costs a lot more than a CPU per-unit per hash/sec.
HOWEVER, a Cryptonight ASIC seems possible. Furthermore, such a design would be grossly more power-efficient than any CPU. Though the capital investment is high, the rewards of mass-production and scalability are also high. Data-centers are power-limited, so any Cryptonight ASIC would be orders of magnitude lower-power than a CPU / GPU.
EDIT: Greater discussion throughout today has led me to napkin-math an FPGA + RLDRAM3 option. I estimated roughly ~$5000 (+/- 30%, its a very crude estimate) for a machine that performs ~3500 Hashes / second, on an unknown number of Watts (Maybe 75Watts?). $2000 FPGA, $2400 RLDRAM3, $600 on PCBs, misc chips, assembly, etc. etc. A more serious effort may use Hybrid Cube Memory to achieve much higher FPGA-based Hashrates. My current guess is that this is an overestimate on the cost, so -30% if you can achieve some bulk discounts + optimize the hypothetical design and manage to accomplish the design on cheaper hardware.
Are there any good FGPA and/or ASIC boards out there?
I'm aware of a few choices out there, but I haven't seen any of them put to the test outside of marketing hoopla: I'm aware of the following:
ButterflyLabs BitForce Single (ASIC+FPGA)
Terasic DE2-115 (FPGA)
ZTEX.de XC6SLX150 1.15x (FPGA)
ngzhang's Icarus (FPGA)
FPGAmining X6500 Mining Card (FPGA)
Are these overpriced (Probably)? Do they underperform (probably)? Do you all know of any others? My main concerns are hashrate (isn't everyone's), MHash per watt/joule (my electric is VERY cheap, I'm just a conservationist), and initial cost per MHash (because good Zod these things are expensive). The allure for me is, if marketing is to be believed, these things range from 5W to 80W and crank out 10-25 MHash per watt. That means I can use a lower-rated power supply, which costs less, and spend less if the cost of a kWh spikes up (which it eventually will). Anyone?
Satoshi Nakamoto said that biggest flaw in Bitcoin network are miners. That's because consensus algorithm, TX hash rate is dependent on miners calculation. Basically, we are consuming a lot of electricity to gather multiple tx in a block, in order to 3 Chinese mining pools can smash that block and take the Bitcoin reward. And if is not enough, the mining pools can inject fake tx in the network to clog it, so TX fees for us (peasants) will go higher.
Why we are using hardware and electricity to create one block?
Why Consensus algorithm is dependent on a new block creation?
Where is the new Internet we all wanted back in 2009-2010 where millions of computer would be the network ?
https://medium.com/@Skycoinproject/cyberbalkanization-and-the-future-of-the-internets-f03f2b590c39 A) Skycoin is the bigger brother of Bitcoin. Early developers of Bitcoin knew that Miners will control the Bitcoin network in the future, so a part of them started to research a new Consensus Algorithm called Obeliskhttps://www.skycoin.net/blog/posts/obelisk-the-skycoin-consensus-algorithm/ B) Skycoin resolved 51% attack, sybil attack, has 0 TX fee, 1-2 sec for a tx , and is private. But the most important thing. Skycoin is the only crypto out there who fixed the problem of volatility of a cryptocurrency. What's that ? Imagine if price of Skycoin goes higher and higher, peasants will ''HoDL'' it, so the term ''currency '' is lost. Why someone would spend an asset that goes higher and higher? B1) One Skycoin kept in the wallet is creating non-stop a second currency called CoinHour. 1SKY is creating 24 CoinHours per day and so on. Coinhour is backed by bandwidth => Skywire(Software Defined Network) is the New Internet that gives Skycoin a real value, a commodity level value. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-CbSdVIwr8E B2) In this ecosystem Skycoin behaves like an equity and CoinHour is the real currency. For example Skycoin Price can reach 1 million and the price of Coinhour is independent, its equilibrium is reached by supply and demand of the market https://explorer.skycoin.net/app/blocks/1 C) Ethereum has a buggy prog language and all shitcoins are on Ethereum Blockchain (Database) with only 30 tx/s. Why would someone would gather all the data on ONE Database?! C1) Skycoin created CX ( first deterministic cryptographic prog language) https://www.skycoin.net/blog/posts/cx-overview/ C2) Skycoin created Fiber https://www.skycoin.net/fibe ( basically you can create your own blockchain with 300-3000 tx/s, private or public , with hardware customization ( law firms, government entities and so on as early adopters) D) Skywire is the New Internet built at the Hardware and Software level -Skywire is hardware agnostic -Skywire has its DYI Antennas - Skywire has FPGA boards -Skyiwire has 10k nodes online ( more than TOR) Bibliography:
TLDR: one neighbor is rendering a movie. He wants 1 TB/ s. He will pay CoinHour to his neighbors to borrow bandwidth capacity of their sky clusters and antennas. Skycoin Address : 25139AGYjwGwgKMZEA268GbJyXrZGWF533i
Cryptocurrency just like any other technological development has given birth to many side industries and trends like ICO, white paper writing, and mining etc… just the cryptocurrency itself rises, falls and changes to adapt real life conditions, so does its side industries and trends. Today we are going to be focusing on mining. How it has risen, fell and adapted through the journey of cryptocurrency till date. Without going into details crypto mining is the process by which new blocks are validated and added to the blockchain. It first took to main stream in January 2009 when the mysterious Satoshi Nakamoto launched the bitcoin white paper within which he/she/they proposed the first mining consensus mechanism called proof of work (Pow). The PoW consensus mechanism required that one should spend a certain amount of computational power to solve a cryptographic problem (nounce) in other to have the have the right to pack/verify the next block on the blockchain. In this mechanism, the more computational power one possesses the more rights they have over the packing of the next block. The quest for faster hardware has seen significant changes in the types of hard ware dominating the PoW mining community. Back in 2009 when bitcoin first started a normal pc and its processing power worked just fine. In fact a pc with an i7 Intel processor could mine up to 50btc per day but back then it almost nothing since btc was only some few cents. When the difficulty of the network became significantly high, simple computer processing units could not match the competitiveness and so miners settled for something more powerful, the high end graphic processors (GPU). This is when the era of rigs began It was in 2010. People would combine GPUs together in mining rigs on a mother board usually in order of 6 per rig some miners operated farms containing many of these rigs. Of course with greater power came greater network difficulty and so the search for faster hard ware let to implementation of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) in June 2012. A further search for faster, less consuming and cheaper hard ware let us to where we are today. In the year 2013, Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC) miners were introduced. One ASIC miner processes 1500H/s which is 100 times processing power of CPU and GPU. But all this speed and efficiency achievements brought about another problem one which touches the core of cryptocurrency itself. The idea of decentralization was gradually fading away as wealthy and big companies are the once who could afford and build the miners therefore centralizing mining around the rich, there was a called for ASIC resistant consensus mechanism. A movement for ASIC resistant PoW algorithms began the idea is to make ASIC mining impossible or at least make it such that using ASIC doesn’t give a miner any additional advantage as to using CPU . In 2013 the MONERO the famous privacy coin proposed CryptoNight an ASIC resistant PoW consensus at least that is how they intended it to be. But things have proven much more difficult in practice than they had anticipated as ASIC producers keep matching up to every barrier put in place the PoW designers at a rate faster than it takes to build these barriers. MONERO for example has to fork every now and then in other to keep the CryptoNight ASIC resistant a trick which is still not working as reported by their CEO “We [also] saw that this was very unsustainable. … It takes a lot to keep [hard forking] again and again for one. For two, it may decentralize mining but it centralizes in another area. It centralizes on the developers because now there’s a lot of trust in developers to keep hard forking.” Another PoW ASIC resistance algorithm is the RamdonX and there are many others but could quickly imagine that the barriers to ASIC mining in these ASIC resistance algorithm would eventually be broken by the ASIC miners and so a total shift from PoW mining to other consensus mechanisms which are ASIC resistance from core were proposed some of which are in use today. Entered the Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus mechanism. PoS was first introduced in 2013 by the PeerCoin team. Here, a validator’s right to mine is proportionate to his/heit economic value in the network simple put the more amounts of coins you have the more mining rights you get. Apart from PeerCoin, NEO and LISK also use POS and soon to follow is EThereum. There are different variations to PoS including but not limited to delegated proof of stake DPoS, masternode proof of stake MPoS each of which seek to improve on something in the POS. This is a very good ASIC resistance consensus mechanism but it still doesn’t solves the centralization problem as the rich always have the power to more coins and have more mining rights plus it is also expensive to start. And then we have gotten many other proposals to combat this among which are Proof of Weight (PoW) and Proof of Capacity (PoC). We take more interest in PoC it is the latest and gives the best solution to all our mining challenges consensus as of now. Proof of Capacity was first was described 2013 in the Proofs of Space paper by Dziembowski, Faust, Kolmogorov and Pietrzak and it is now being used in Burst. The main factor that separates all the mining mechanisms is the resource used. These resources which miners spend in other to have mining rights is a measure of ensuring that one has expense a none-trivial amount of effort in making a statement. The resource being spent in PoC is disk space. This is less expensive since many people already have some unused space lying around and space is a cheap resource in the field of tech. it has no discrimination over topography… it really solves lots of centralized problems present in all most other consensus. If the future is now then one could say the future of crypto mining is PoC.
Why is getting into FPGA's such a crappy experience?
I'm a hobbyist and this is my first venture into FPGA's. I understand how FPGA works in theory. It's just a bunch of combinational logic connected by clock-connected flip-flops, whose topology and combinational functions can be programmed with a high level language. I bought a Xilinx board from embeddedmicro.com and I'm going to work through their tutorials. All I want to be able to do is specify a bunch of like registers and crap, and how to connect them with clocked flip-flops to do some really basic stuff like a simple CPU with 1-2 custom instructions or something. So why do I have to download a GIANT SIX GIGABYTE FILE TO DO THAT? What could this software possibly be doing that it needs to be that big? In a sane world, all I'd need is a board and a simple compiler which just takes the high-level language and turns it into the topology file to upload to the board. But in the insanity in which I am currently living, I have to download some gigantic IDE that is going to be huge and probably slower than mining bitcoins on an NES. I don't know because IT'S STILL DOWNLOADING. So to even get to the download, I had to log into the website, register, and give them a name and a physical address (and God forbid I should leave the "Company" field empty!). The Licensing crap on their website looks like you need an MBA to understand it. This company sells pieces of hardware, FFS! Why in Stallman's name can't they just make the software FOSS and let anyone download it instead of all this BS about WEBPACK this and annual upgrade that? Xilinx, in case you haven't noticed, in order for anyone to actually use your software, THEY HAVE TO BUY A CHIP OR BOARD AND YOU CAN MAKE MONEY OFF YOUR CUSTOMERS THAT WAY. CHARGING FOR SOFTWARE OR HAVING A BYZANTINE PROCESS FOR GETTING A FREE LICENSE MAKES ZERO SENSE FOR A HARDWARE COMPANY. Anyone know a place where you can just buy an FPGA board, plug it into a USB port, sudo apt-get install some FOSS compiler, type your Verilog or VHDL or whatever into emacs, run 2-5 commands and have a running design? If such a place doesn't exist, some startup needs to disrupt this industry. If you make it easy for people to develop for your HW, those devs will be inclined buy your product just to make their lives easier.
I would like to warmly welcome everyone to waltonchain This is an updated, extended community-written post and I will try to update it regularly over time.
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What is Waltonchain?
The Waltonchain Foundation is building a cross-industry, cross-data sharing platform by integrating Blockchain with the Internet of Things through self-developed RFID Chips with intellectual property rights. The in-house developed Waltonchain RFID chips integrate a proprietary, genuine random number generator and an asymmetric encryption logic and hardware signature circuit, all of which are patent-protected. The combination of self-developed RFID chips and the Waltonchain blockchain will ultimately achieve the interconnection of all things and create a genuine, believable, traceable businessmodel with totally shared data and transparent information. Waltonchain will unfold a new era of the Value Internet of Things (VIoT).
The Waltonchain team has formulated a 4-phase development plan, starting from infrastructure platform establishment to gradually incorporating retail, logistics and product manufacturing, and to finally achieving the full coverage of the business ecosystem.
As for the phase 1.0 of the project, the team has developed the clothing system integration scheme based on RFID. The application scenarios at phase 1.0 will establish Golden demonstration template At phase 2.0, our RFID beacon chip will be massproduced and can be used in clothing, B2C retail and logistics. At phase 3.0, manufacturers will achieve traceable customization of intelligent packaging. At the project phase 4.0, with the upgrading and iteration of assets information collection hardware and improvement of blockchain data structure, all assets can be registered in Waltonchain in the future.
Do Sanghyuk (都相爀) – Initiator in Korea Korean, Vice Chairman of the China - Korea Cultural Exchange Development Committee, Director of the Korea Standard Products Association, Chairman of Seongnam Branch of the Korea Small and Medium Enterprises Committee, Chairman of Korea NC Technology Co., Ltd., Senior Reporter of IT TODAY News, Senior Reporter of NEWS PAPER Economic Department, Director of ET NEWS.
Xu Fangcheng (许芳呈) – Initiator in China Chinese, majored in Business Management, former Director for Supply Chain Management of Septwolves Group Ltd., has rich practical experience in supply chain management and purchasing process management. Currently, he is the Director of Shenzhen Silicon, the Director of Xiamen Silicon and the Board Chairman of Quanzhou Silicon. He is also one of our Angel investors.
Kim Suk ki (金锡基) Korean, South Koreas electronics industry leader, Doctor of Engineering (graduated from the University of Minnesota), Professor of Korea University, previously worked at Bell Labs and Honeywell USA, served as vice president of Samsung Electronics, senior expert in integrated circuit design field, IEEE Senior Member, Vice President of the Korea Institute of Electrical Engineers, Chairman of the Korea Semiconductor Industry Association. Has published more than 250 academic papers with more than 60 patents.
Zhu Yanping (朱延平) Taiwanese, China, Doctor of Engineering (graduated from National Cheng Kung University), Chairman of the Taiwan Cloud Services Association, Director of Information Management Department of National Chung Hsing University. Has won the Youth Invention Award by Taiwan Ministry of Education and Taiwan Top Ten Information Talent Award. Has deeply studied blockchain applications over the years and led a block chain technology team to develop systems for health big data and agricultural traceability projects.
Mo Bing (莫冰) Chinese, Doctor of Engineering (graduated from Harbin Institute of Technology), Research Professor of Korea University, Distinguished Fellow of Sun Yat - sen University, Internet of Things expert, integrated circuit expert, Senior Member of Chinese Society of Micro-Nano Technology, IEEE Member. Has published more than 20 papers and applied for 18 invention patents. Began his research of BitCoin in 2013, one of the earliest users of btc 38.com and Korea korbit. Served as Technical Director of Korea University to cooperate with Samsung Group to complete the project Multi sensor data interaction and fusion based on peer to peer network. Committed to the integration of block chain technology and Internet of Things to create a real commercialized public chain.
Wei Songjie (魏松杰) Chinese, Doctor of Engineering (graduated from the University of Delaware), Associate Professor of Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Core Member and Master Supervisor of Network Space Security Engineering Research Institute, Block Chain Technology expert in the field of computer network protocol and application, network and information security. Has published more than 20 papers and applied for 7 invention patents. Previously worked at Google, Qualcomm, Bloomberg and many other high-tech companies in the United States, served as R D engineer and technical expert; has a wealth of experience in computer system design, product development and project management.
Shan Liang (单良) Graduated from KOREATECH (Korea University of Technology and Education) Mechanical Engineering Department, Venture Capital PhD, GM of Waltonchain Technology Co., Ltd. (Korea), Director of Korea Sungkyun Technology Co., Ltd., Chinese Market Manager of the heating component manufacturer NHTECH, a subsidiary of Samsung SDI, economic group leader of the Friendship Association of Chinese Doctoral Students in Korea, one of the earliest users of Korbit, senior digital money player.
Chen Zhangrong (陈樟荣) Chinese, graduated in Business Management, received a BBA degree in Armstrong University in the United States, President of TIANYU INTERNATIONAL GROUP LIMITED, leader of Chinese clothing accessories industry, Chinas well-known business mentor, guest of the CCTV2 Win in China show in 2008. Researcher in the field of thinking training for Practical Business Intelligence e-commerce and MONEYYOU course, expert on success for Profit Model course. Began to contact Bitcoin in 2013 with a strong interest and in-depth study of digital money and decentralized management thinking. Has a wealth of practical experience in the business management, market research, channel construction, business cooperation and business model.
Lin Herui (林和瑞) Chinese, Dean of Xiamen Zhongchuan Internet of Things Industry Research Institute, Chairman of Xiamen Citylink Technology Co., Ltd., Chairman of Xiamen IOT. He successively served as Nokia RD Manager and Product Manager, Microsoft Hardware Department Supply Chain Director. In 2014, started to set up a number of IoT enterprises and laid out the industrial chain of the Internet of Things. The products and services developed under his guidance are very popular. Assisted the government in carrying out industrial and policy research and participated in planning of multiple government projects of smart cities, IoT towns and project reviews.
Ma Xingyi (马兴毅) Chinese, China Scholarship Council (CSC) special student, Doctor of Engineering of Korea University, Research Professor of Fusion Chemical Systems Institute of Korea University, Korea Sungkyun Technology Co., Ltd. CEO, Member of Korea Industry Association, Associate Member of the Royal Society of Chemistry, has published his research results in the worlds top journal Nature Communications and participated in the preparation of a series of teaching materials for Internet of Things engineering titled Introduction to the Internet of Things. His current research direction covers cross-disciplines that combine blockchain technology with intelligent medical technology.
Zhao Haiming (赵海明) Chinese, Doctor of Chemical Conductive Polymer of Sungkyunkwan University, core member of Korea BK21th conductive polymer project, researcher of Korea Gyeonggi Institute of Sensor, researcher of Korea ECO NCTech Co., Ltd., Vice President of the Chinese Chamber of Commerce, Director of Korea Sungkyun Technology Co., Ltd. He has been engaged in transfer of semiconductor, sensor and other technologies in South Korea. He is an early participant of the digital currency market.
Liu Cai (刘才) Chinese, Master of Engineering, has 12 years of experience in design and verification of VLSI and a wealth of practical project experience in RFID chip design process, SOC chip architecture, digital-analog hybrid circuit design, including algorithm design, RTL design, simulation verification, FPGA prototype verification, DC synthesis, backend PR, package testing, etc. Has led a team to complete the development of a variety of navigation and positioning baseband chips and communication baseband chips, finished a series of AES, DES and other encryption module designs, won the first prize of GNSS and LBS Association of China for scientific and technological progress. Finally, he is an expert in the consensus mechanism principle of blockchain and the related asymmetric encryption algorithm.
Yang Feng (杨锋) Chinese, Master of Engineering, worked at ZTE. Artificial intelligence expert, integrated circuit expert. Has 12 years of experience in VLSI research and development, architecture design and verification and 5 years of research experience in artificial intelligence and the genetic algorithm. Has won the Shenzhen Science and Technology Innovation Award. Has done an in-depth research on the principle and realization of the RFID technology, the underlying infrastructure of blockchain, smart contracts and the consensus mechanism algorithm.
Guo Jianping (郭建平) Chinese, Doctor of Engineering (graduated from the Chinese University of Hong Kong), Associate Professor of the Hundred Talents Program of Sun Yat-sen University, academic advisor of masters degree students, IEEE senior member, integrated circuit expert. Has published more than 40 international journal conference papers in the field of IC design and applied for 16 patents in China.
Huang Ruimin (黄锐敏) Chinese, Doctor of Engineering (graduated from the University of Freiburg, Germany), academic advisor of masters degree students, lecturer of the Department of Electronics of Huaqiao University, integrated circuit expert. Mainly explores digital signal processing circuit and system implementation and works on digital signal processing technology long-term research and development.
Guo Rongxin (郭荣新) Chinese, Master of Engineering, Deputy Director of the Communication Technology Research Center of Huaqiao University. Has more than 10 years of experience in design and development of hardware and software for embedded systems, works on the long-term research and development of RFID and blockchain technology in the field of Internet of Things.
Dai Minhua (戴闽华) Chinese, graduated in Business Management, received a BBA degree from Armstrong University, senior financial expert, served as Vice President and CFO of Tanyu International Group Co., Ltd. Has 13 years of financial work experience, has a wealth of experience in developing and implementing enterprise strategy and business plans, as well as achieving business management objectives and development goals.
Liu Dongxin (刘东欣) Chinese, received an MBA from China Europe International Business School, Visiting Scholar of Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University, strategic management consulting expert, investment and financing expert. His current research interest lies in the impact of the blockchain technology on the financial sector.
Song Guoping (宋国平) Qiu Jun (邱俊) Yan Xiaoqian (严小铅) Lin Jingwei (林敬伟) He Honglian (何红连)
Ko Sang Tae (高尚台) Liu Xiaowei (刘晓为) Su Yan (苏岩) Zhang Yan (张岩) Ma Pingping (马萍萍) Peng Xiande (彭先德) Fu Ke (傅克) Xiao Guangjian (肖光坚) Li Xiong (李雄)
The good chance of Free Trial about VEO by Blackminer F1 is coming&revenue $5.3
The revenue of VEO is rising to $5.3/day, it's a good chance of Free Trial by Blackminer F1 This is the entrance to the trial mining: https://www.hashaltcoin.com/en/trial_miners/2 Today's profit of VEO is very satisfying, i would like to share some opinion about the VEO, and you can judge whether Trial it for free or not. VEO is a fully mining public chain without pre-mining. Zack, the main developer of the project,who also uesed to be the formar first CTO of AE , did not mine any tokens in advance during programming. We believe that the VEO would be much valuable in the future. So now ,you have a great chance to mine it by Blackminer F1 for free, even get one in your pocket as a lotto ticket. You can download the wallet here: https://myveowallet.com/ The following is some details about Blackminer F1 In September 2018, Blackminer's first batch of FPGA miners was officially launched, model Blackminer F1. Currently there are 22 algorithms built in. The price is $2000, all in stock. The newly released version of Blackminer F1 is F1+, which comes with three boards and can support same algorithms as Blackminer F1. But with newly updated hardware design, its performance is about 1.6 to 1.8 times of one F1. You can check the daily profit by this page: https://www.hashaltcoin.com/en/calculation There are some third party reviews： ruplikmastik666's test review: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5039924.0 Bittawm's review: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5065403.msg47689832#msg47689832 The Bitcoin Miner Youtube channel review: https://youtu.be/lK2aACwneks The official Links: Official Website:https://hashaltcoin.com/Official Discord:https://discord.gg/eUNRSgy (very active, mainly to share and discover innovative cryptos and announce development progress) Bitcointalk ANN: https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=5029989.0 Sales Manager : Lili whatsapp:+8618612535678
So you're sick of just mining on your GPU, and not a fan of the electric bill after a month of mining? There has to be a better option out there than your loud GPU in your gaming computer. There is! Shortly after GPUs became popular for bitcoin mining, enterprising folks started looking at other things they can re-purpose to mine bitcoins more efficiently. Around mid-year 2011, the first devices sprang up that are called FPGAs or Field Programmable Gate Arrays. These are nothing new to the hobbyist community, they've been around for a while for crackers and other security-conscious folks looking at ways to defeat cryptographic locks. Hey! I know something that uses cryptographic calculations to secure its network! BITCOINS! Yep, so some miners developed their own boards and slapped some FPGA chips on them (most commonly the Spartan-6), and wrote specific firmware and "bitstreams" to more efficiently calculate bitcoin hashes. The first generations were sort of slow, but still they had better efficiency than a GPU. Some of the latest generation included the Icarus boards, Cairnsmore, x6500, and ModMiner Quad. In early 2012(i think my timeline is right), Butterfly Labs(BFL) was selling their own FPGA miner that hashed at 800 Mhash/s using 80 watts and only cost US$600 amazing! These grew very popular, but people could see that FPGAs still weren't the most efficient way to hash their shares. BFL then announced that they would be designing their own chips that would be orders of magnitude faster than anything ever seen. These would be the ASICs (or Application Specific Integrated Circuit)everyone is raving about. ASICs are--as the name implies--specifically designed for one thing, and one thing only. Bitcoins. This is all it can do, and can't really be repurposed like an FPGA to other applications. Who wouldn't want a US$150 "Jalapeno" that hashes at 3.5 GIGAhashes/s using only power from a USB port?? Crazy! So summer 2012, BFL says they will ship before Christmas. Various things happen and we now still don't have any confirmed ship dates from BFL. A few other companies have sprouted up, ASICminer which I believe is developing their own chips to mine themselves, but in a responsible way as to not threaten the network with a sudden influx of hashing. bASIC was a fiasco that was developed by the creator of the ModMiner Quad(which is actually a fantastic miner, I own one, and love it.) where he took many preorders, promised lots of people amazing ASIC performance, but in early 2013 the stress of the whole endeavour got to him and he gave up, refunded money(I think it's still being refunded now, or maybe it's been cleared up already.) Avalon is the only company we know has ASIC mining hardware in the wild. It is not certain exactly how many are out there, but they have been confirmed by independent sources. The Avalon units are expensive(75 BTC) and have been in limited production runs (or batches) of a few hundred units that were pre-sold out very quickly. All of this info is gleaned from the Custom Hardware forum over at bitcointalk.org over the past year or so I've been involved in bitcoin. I may have some facts wrong, but this is the gist of the situation and hopefully gives you an insight on the state of the hardware war against bitcoin Thanks for reading!
I'm slowly learning about bitcoin and litecoin. I've thought a little lately about litecoin mining hardware. This is my analysis. I've only had tangential exposure to hardware design, so my estimates or assumptions might be off. Feedback welcome! The scrypt litecoin hash function is dominated by an operation called a salsa: it runs 2048 salsas for each hash, and each salsa involves reading/writing a 128B block from a 128KB scratch buffer. The requirement to have a 128KB buffer for each running hash is what makes scrypt difficult to accelerate. The 128B blocks are written successively in the first phase of 1024 salsas (the output of each salsa), and then read randomly in the second phase of 1024 salsas. I thought about implementing the salsa on a Xilinx FPGA. I implemented a few salsa building blocks to get an idea on timing. The Xilinx chips have 2KB distributed blocks of RAM, but there isn't nearly enough on-chip memory to support many concurrent hashes. One idea is to store every 64 salsa output in the first phase, and then recompute intermediate salsas as needed. This means you need to do an expected 32 extra salsas for each salsa in the second phase. Based on my experiments, it seemed like a 32 clock (latency) salsa running at 200+MHz is possible (or better, but this seems like the right order of magnitude) on an Artix-6 which costs about $300. The Artix-6 has 730 2KB buffers. Thus, I estimate:
730 (number of concurrent hashes) * (200M (clock frequency) / (1024 (salsas per phase) * (1 + 33) (expected computed salsas per salsa) * 32 (clock cycles per computed salsa))) = 130.6KH/s
This gives 0.44KH/$. A 7970 card gets 1.75KH/$. We're off by a factor of 4 in price/performance. This design might work in an ASIC. In a custom design, you can tune the trade-off between memory and computation, and probably improve the speed estimates above. I'm still trying to estimate the cost of such an ASIC design, but I'm a little out of my depth. I started to wonder why a 7970 gets such awesome price/performance. The other options is to put the 128KB blocks in DRAM. You don't need that much memory: 1GB gives you space for 8K concurrent hashes. But now you need high bandwidth to feed the salsa units. Each salsa reads 128B. A 7970 has a 260GB/s GDDR5 memory interface. That's
Actual reported rates are around 700KH/s. I think that is because of the random access patterns in the second phase of salsas. That's about 1.75KH/$. So the other option would be an ASIC with the salsa units and a GDDR5 memory interface like a 7970 board. I estimate (from octopart.com) the cost of the 3GB of DRAM on a 7970 card is about $60. Let's say the ASIC is $20 (about the cost of the bitcoin ASICs, but it might be wildly inaccurate for a chip and package that can support a 384 bit GDDR5 memory interface). Then we get 8.75KH/$, or about 5x the GPUs. Unfortunately, GDDR5 is a bleeding edge memory standard. An FPGA couldn't possibly manage that level of performance at this point. Designing a GDDR5 board and memory controller would probably be extremely difficult. You could ask, what is the fatest DRAM interface supported by an FPGA? The Spartan-6 (approx $90 and up) can support a 64-bit DDR2 PC-800 interface. That's 1.6GB/s, so
1.6GB/s (bandwidth) / (2048 * 128) = 6KH/s.
A DDR2 PC-800 DIMM is about $14. That's a pathetic 0.06KH/$. You can manage 1066 or 1333 in a faster part, but that doesn't help price/performance. tl;dr: Trading memory for recompute puts FPGAs about 4x behind GPUs for price/performance in rough estimate. Same idea for ASIC is worth a closer look. GPUs are surprisingly efficient for scrypt! ASIC+GDDR5 memory is competitve, but design is out of reach for mere mortals. edit: formatting.
A FPGA opensource miner has just been released running at 80Mhps but at a cost of $585. The efficiency is stated below quoted from a post in the thread.
At 80 MHps, I will need at least 3 of these to achieve a single 5830 hashrate. That is $595.-x 3 = $1785.- at full price, vs. $190.- for the 5830. Giving the 5830 is consuming $11.- a month in electricity, and assuming this board will consume zero electricity, it will take more than 145 months, or 12 years to recover the investment, always comparing to a 5830.
Apologies but no more development information will be posted. I've been offered a 25% share from someone that owns 2 FPGA clusters. If you haven't seen that type of hardware before think a 156 FPGAs per machine.
From those posts what we can understand is that the factors that affect FPGA now are high procurement cost, low running cost and ease of scalability . What this means is that with the increasing total hash rate of the network (30Ghash/day last difficultly adjustment) the question becomes when would the difficulty render GPU inefficient in contrast to running cost? Remember to take into account FPGAs are usually run in clusters and even though it would not be beneficial to buy one outright, those who have access to FPGA are the first movers and eventual dominant forces of the mining market. Of course, in the end, ASIC is where it's at. Anyone? =D Edit: read more stuff, added info.
Battlecoin [BCX]: a new (and ambitious) game changer in the world of cryptocurrency - Interview with JackofAll
"When it gets too hard for mortals to generate 50BTC, new users could get some coins to play with right away." - Satoshi Nakamoto, 2010 Time goes faster when one talks about IT but, when talking about cryptocurrencies, time goes faster yet. How long have passed since we’ve heard of mythic characters from the beginning of cypherpunk era – like John Gilmore, Eric Hughes and Tim May – and those from the early days of digital currency of Wei Dai, Satoshi Nakamoto (real or not, it doesn't matter) and others, passing by the current Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies whales – that now are experts or well established entrepreneurs – to us, the Fourth Generation? Twenty-two years. However, if we consider that the real deal has only begun on 2009 with Satoshi’s Genesis Block, then the perspective of the quantic leaps we are giving become clearer. 2009 - Satoshi Nakamoto deployed tools and strategy to people regain control 2011 - FPGA Bitcoin Miners appear. Regular GPU miners start to struggle more and more for Bitcoins 2013 - ASIC miners enters the market, and an official Bitcoin mining industry arises, taking small miners – regular people – completely out of the Bitcoin mines, forcing them to mine – and to create – many different altcoins with many different purposes. 2014 - Now, five years after Bitcoin Golden Dawn and almost four years after the white ninja Satoshi’s disappearance, another cryptowarrior arises on battlefield to give (hash) power back to the people. Was Satoshi foreseeing what was about to come? However, this time, not so philanthropically… Meet JackofAll, Head Developer of Battlecoin [BCX]. Andre Torres: Jack, are you there? JackofAll: Yes. AT: Thanks for talking to Cryptonerd.co and also to Criptonauta.net (in Portuguese and Spanish). Shall we begin? JoA: Yes. AT: With the ASIC TH/s mining hardware invading Bitcoin mining pools as FPGA once did - and are about to do again, this time in Litecoin mines - common people are getting more and more trouble to mine big cryptocurrencies and have ROI. The cryptomines, crowded with dead and injured miners, have become - literally - a battlefield. Now is my question, why the name Battlecoin? JoA: Battle coin is by design of course. Just like everything that we do. And yes, it is for the reasons that you might think. It has become a "Battle” out there to get coins made, to get coins listed and just to be able to mine against the early guys that have all the hardware. So I came up with the name Battlecoin rather solidify what we are doing. We are battling for hashpower and BCX will give the opportunity for anyone (with enough battlecoins) be able to have control of a comparable amount of hashpower that the elite crypto whales have. We also have a little controversy that surrounds us, as some people would say that we are waging war on altcoins by the nature of what we are doing. People will Battle it out to keep control of our hashpower. It could possibly lock some of the weaker coins ...for instance if we are paid to switch to a coin with low difficulty or one that has low network support on average and we are paid to drive the difficulty up . There are several things that could happen to some coins... Bad things they might not react how the developers have intended. We might fork coins or even lock coins up when our pool stops mining. So not everyone will like us. So here again another battle to try to walk a public relations line. So in short, I would say that Battlecoin represents all of the battles we have gone through and the many more we have in front of us. We also have other app ideas that would complement the Battlecoin Brand. AT: Nice :) Do you watch anime/read manga, Naruto, more specifically? I mean, Battlecoin project is like an army that will, more than just fight, direct the ways of the wars by influencing/disrupting the market by its own will or by contract? JoA: Actually I do not, as my schedule does not permit such luxury... but my sister does and as a matter of fact she is a very good cartoon artist and most of her subjects are anime. But relation to any specific object or character is purely coincidental. I will check it out now though =) AT: I did that relation to Naruto because there is an organization called Akatsuki, and when you replied my first question, it immediately reminded me of them. JoA: Nice. AT: However, you did not reply my previous comment... but then I've got the idea correctly... or not? JoA: Ask the question again and I will try to sum it up… (Jack remembers the question) “Battlecoin project is like an army that will, more than just fight, to direct the ways of the wars by influencing/disrupting the market by its own will or by contract?” Yes exactly. It will do all of the above it will have a big influence in the market. AT: I was just thinking about that. JoA: Yes that is why such a controversy. There are people that don’t want to see this happen but I feel it is part of altcoin evolution. AT: indeed. It’s like a new powerful ninja/warrior coming into the game, not seen since Satoshi's era. JoA: Yes... You Get it. AT: What about competitors? Is there anyone on the same level? JoA: No. Not really. We are the only ones that I know of that is taking the multipool to this level. They have the hashpower but they do not let the public decide where to put it. They just follow an algorithm that directs to "most profitable" coin. We will give that, plus add some human power to the equation. As far as I know, we are the only one that is working on having a voting system that controls it. Giving it that human element that other concepts lack. AT: But it needs more than a swallow to make a summer... You do have some other strong companions, don't you? Also, you talk as "we". Are there other Generals in Battlecoin army? Who are they? JoA: Well, it was originally my concept but I could not embark on this project alone. I have one partner that is above the board Mr. Big. We Kind of met through a mutual acquaintance and formed a solid partnership. Mr. Big has several projects that I am not sure of what I have liberty to discuss but I do know one of those projects will be to provide hosting services and as I said before we are working on some application ideas that are still in concept. I also have a private backer that would like to remain nameless. In addition, I have a few consultants that I work with too and I consider them a part of the team of course. Our team is growing daily... and you have to remember this is a project that involves the community, so in my eyes they are part of US too. AT: Yes... or all the strategy developed might go to the floor, since the project will require a LOT of hashpower... JoA: I am hoping to have camaraderie developed and rivals be formed over this concept. I want people to be talking in War rooms about what coin they want to hit... Strategy for pump and dump coins, etc. Yes, it will require a lot of hashpower and I hope that people will want to give us that hashpower, because they will get paid top $$ for that. We won’t be making the revenue from the battlecoins that get spent... That money will be split between the miners in our pool as subsidy to make sure that they continue to make as much or more than they could make mining anywhere else. AT: Now that the strategy has been covered and we are entering more into the battlefield grounds, when will the battles begin? JoA: I cannot confirm a release date for Phase 3, which includes the "arena", but Phase 1 Will be open to the public on this Friday 9 minutes after 9 pm. The wallets will be linked on our website first then we will post on BCT and then we will have a Big giveaway starting shortly after to kick it all off. I will also provide a mirror on Google drive. We should have a Block crawler and a faucet too, if all goes well. AT: That sounds great. Andre Torres: So, during Phase 1, you will gather your ranks that will battle when Phase 3 starts... On what consists Phase 2? JoA: Phase 2 will be where we determine the market value of a Battlecoin. It will need to be listed on an exchange to determine the FMV of the coin. We originally were going to dictate the price on our own exchange but we feel like to keep with the nature of crypto it would be best to let the free market decide. We have been in touch with a couple of exchanges that have interest in our idea as ours is one that would form a close relationship and provide an elevated amount of trade volume with the exchange that carries our brand . AT: Battlecoin already have an exchange of preference? On the other hand, perhaps some exchange have already manifested interest on trading BCX with exclusivity? JoA: I wish to decline to answer as negotiations are still going on. AT: A wise decision. (laughs) AT: Now, from the battlefield to the weapons of combat... could you talk a bit about the mechanics of Battlecoin? JoA: It is pretty straightforward. We did a small pre-mine to make sure we had enough coin for the 3rd phase. And we are doing a small bonus block mine in the beginning to give all of our supporters plenty of Battlecoin to play with for the phase 3 open. And then from there it is a solid 50 coins a block every 2min we should find a block... Difficulty adjusts every block with a 10-block look back. I think this will provide a very smooth operating coin providing plenty of coin to the market for the use of our services. There will be a proof of stake 1% every 10 days with maturity of 20 days. This is to reward the users for holding our coin so they will have plenty to use when the time comes. AT: As we finish this interview, any other comments you might like to add? JoA: I think we have covered quite a bit and we have much more to come in the future. I appreciate all of your time and hard work! AT: Me too. I am very glad of this talk and for having the opportunity of talking beforehand with the mastermind of a project than can be a huge game changer on cryptocurrency world. JoA: Yes, it is nice to be able to talk directly to the people that make it happen. I wish I had back in the day... lol. The advantage and tools that the newcomers have… AT: Let us make new days :) This interview was made on 01-07-13, on #CryptoNerd mIRC channel. Portuguese and Spanish versions are available on criptonauta.net. BCX refers to BattleCoinEXchange. It is not related in any form to BitcoinEXpress.
Hello folks I've started to learn a bit about the FPGA hardware, and wanted to expand into having a goal that I could pursue. As such, I decided that I (likely unprofitably) want to set up an FPGA to mine bitcoins/altcoins, simply because I am more motivated when I have a goal in mind, and this seems like a good starting point. Does anyone have any recommendations for a beginners/intermediate FPGA board that might have a good foundation for something like this?
There's no point regretting anything because you cannot undo the past. I heard about Snowden in prison, came on the news but I only know what the news has been telling me. I will look more in to it, he's got balls I can tell you that and I admire a good set of balls.
You don't learn how to program, you learn how use a programming language, programming is what you do with that information. Read lots of examples of source code, see if you can work out whats going on. Don't just copy/paste the examples, write them word for word no matter how long they are. Not only will it help understand what it is doing better you may also learn a few tricks.
Basically it prevents me from using encryption that allows hidden volumes, virtual machines and I cannot delete my internet history. It lasts for 5 years and each breach of the order can be punishable up to 5 years.
It's not a case of them being fair or unfair. I can't go too in to detail about it if I want to take it back to court, I just want to challenge it, plus I like to keep my cards close to my chest.
There's some funny characters in prison I can tell you that, made friends for life. Most of the people in there were in there for fraud, drugs, gang stuff. I never met any famous prisoners if that's what you mean? Then again everyone's story in prison is interesting.
Strong encryption, limit the amount of personal information you place on the internet, don't draw attention, only use a sandboxed browser and tunnel your HTTPS through SSH using the highest of encryption, PGP mail for every mail, don't store encryption keys on your computer, full disk encryption and/or hidden OS, use different emails for your banking, paypal etc, Mak3p4$5w0rdZ!nCr3d!b4LlYsTr0nG, uninstall flash use Link to youtube.com instead etc, etc...
Security isn't something you can just apply it's an on going process and in most cases you are relying on products sold to you on a trust basis. You're told that Antivirus software will stop you getting a virus but what you're not told is that Antivirus software only protects you against what is known, takes less than an hour to write a new piece of malware or backdoor that your AV will never detect.
People put too much faith in to security systems without understanding how they work, their capabilities or limitations.
There's no need to be "pentested" it's a right con, they only test you against old exploits, if you update regular then you're already safe.
Use 2 factor authentication and/or strong password policy, prevent users creating the own password (they will only make them simpler)
Just make your data worthless to a hacker by encrypting it.
Nothing is worth going to prison for. Yeah they are happy I am back and I am happy to see them again. It was ~100GBP for my parents to come and visit me in prison, I was a long way from home. I told them not to waste their money because the visit only lasts 2 hours.
I am x military I am used to being away from home for long periods of time. It also makes time fly faster when you're not constantly reminded about home. If you don't know what you are missing then you don't miss much.
Sometimes, events like that helps to put things in to perspective. We often don't think about our lives on a day to day basis but when something out of the "norm" happens it makes us think that little more.
I think it's great, scrypt coin too! I think they will get heavily regulated soon though. I had 78 bitcoins backed up on a SDHC before I was sent to prison. Back then they were worth ~$40 each. Come out of jail and I can't find that shit anywhere lol.
The only problem is even if I do find it, it's encrypted with keys that are on the computer the police confiscated and I can't get back.
I wonder how long it will last here in the west, I'm surprised it hasn't already been regulated the tax man must be pissed!
I think there are also more constructive uses for mining, I mentioned this on twitter also. See there are a lot of cancer researchers and scientists that have HUGE amounts of data that needs to be mined to help cure diseases and solve the worlds problems.
The world hash rate for crypto coins is more powerful than most of the worlds super computers combined. Cancer researchers should give coins for mining cancer research data instead of wasting time generating meaningless hashes.
Honestly, no Idea there is too much internet rumor and no one has officially come forward to claim it. I read some people in Spain were arrested and questioned in relation to the PSN breach but that still doesn't mean it was them.
Maintaining a strong persona such as kayla and doing what I did wasn't easy. If I could go back in time I wouldn't change anything, I'd just keep going back in time to relive it over and over again. Nothing is worth prison time, it's a waste of life however I did manage to get some qualifications out of it. Not many people can say they left prison with a diploma for the thing they went in for.
I honestly believe they are state sponsored (possibly not from the beginning) but I do believe they are the people Assad is turning to. As for their methods I don't even know what methods they are using, I'll read in to it though, I'm fresh out of prison and most of what they have done was done while I had no internet access. I've been banned from the internet since 2011.
I was able to use computers in prison. I was given a job as a class room assistant helping teach people about computers, basic things. I also managed to complete a number of computer related qualifications and gained a diploma. Seeing the internet after 2+ years was kind of strange though. The internet looks a lot different now compared to how it did in 2011. To be honest I don't like it, it has that "iphone look" to it all, big buttons and lots of unneeded JS. I wish I could build a rig I just do not have the money to do so. Hopefully soon I will find a nice job and maybe then I will build one.
Once I got to prison I realized it's nothing like the movies. Because it was all over the news when I was sentenced everyone in the jail knew who I was and what I was in for. I've made some good friends out it, people I am going to meet again once they are free. No one was ever violent towards me, you don't give any attitude you don't get any attitude. I did see some people get fucked up in there, mostly starts over something really silly, like a game of pool.
Well, most of the prison movies I have seen all show people stood at the bars, big guys growling "mmm fresh meat" and everyone getting stabbed up every 2 minuets. When you've never been to prison before you can't help but think back to every movie you've seen about prison.
Out of everyone I have met there are only a small handful of people that I would put in to the "reverse engineehacker" bracket. Lots of people who know how to use exploits, not many who know how and why they work or are able to write their own, truly is a dieing art.
Programming languages too, learning new things is never easy, it's about determination and the will to succeed. The best way to learn is to read lots of source code and try to work out what is going on, maybe you could even improve on it?
I just learned from doing, trial and error. If there was something that I did not understand I would just research it, it sometimes helps to read it from more than one source. I used to just read lots of examples and try to make sense of them, if I found something new or something I did not understand I would research it.
As for time, I am unsure... I am still learning now, it is an on going process. All I can say is learn the basics and be creative, if there's something you do not understand research it, google always has the answer.
Hello, for those who think GPU is out of business is wrong. Actualy they do over 99% of the bitcoin mining, becayse of the price/mh of the FGPA and non existence of ASIC's. Regular FPGA boards just output hash power like RADEON 5770 - 200Mh/s for a hardware cost 5 times 5770, and you still need PC to operate with FPGA board.The long waiting ASIC's never realised and not will soon, until theese days ASIC's are considered as scam. But may i have your attention. I have small tech company based in Sofia , Bulgaria (european unit). I made some research on custom hardware for bitcoin mining. The problem is that the good FPGA chips that can output reasonable hash power costs several thausands dolllars each. I found good alternative with one chinese chip manufactorer but still the working prototype will be an expensive investment, at least for me. What i want to build is device that is capable of 2GH/s with own web server and internet connection for pool mining management (because you dont want dedicated PC with the miner) all for retail cost under 500$. The invention will cost around 10,000$ only for materials, my dedicated working hours are not counted and doesnt matter. To reach the 500$ barier two things must be availble- 1st own Pick&place machines (which i dont have), 2nd a good amount of chip order(the more chips, the less the price) for chinese fabric. A good start is around 130,000$, for prototype, pnp machines, and the chip order. What i have is a testing equipment. So if there are persons who want to invest, or donate for my miner all will be welcome. The first 10,000$ will show if it is possible and is considered as risk investment, which i can not return. If the prototype working with the required parametters the money above first 10,000$ will be considered as donation, investment or preorder(every participant can choose what it is). I can't put my company info and email here because i dont want spam, but i can give all details in personal. Only serios mind please, my english isnt good for that i can't argue with everybody in the reddit. regards Georgi Krachmarov [email protected]
FPGA Top ROI Calculator and FPGA Mining Profitability Calculator. FPGA.guide has meticulously calculated the best hardware and coin to mine is. Hopefully, this feature will be helpful for miners ... There is USB Bitcoin mining hardware, which mines bitcoins. ... Special Design Control Board. The Antminer R4 employs the Xilinx’s ZYNQ-7000 family system-on-a-chip that integrates a feature-rich core ARM Cortez – A9 based processing system. It also uses 28nm Xilinx programmable logic. It supports Gigabit Ethernet to ensure that mined blocks are submitted instantly. Final Thoughts. Mining ... FPGA is a hardware circuit that a user can program to carry out one or more logical operations. Taken a step further, FPGAs are integrated circuits, or ICs, which are sets of circuits on a... Read More "INTRODUCTION TO FPGA" Read More . WHAT IS ‘PROOF OF WORK’ Cryptocurrencies use distributed ledgers-blockchains to record transaction data, a critical process for the whole system to work is ... Below are statistics about the Bitcoin Mining performance of ASIC hardware and only includes specialized equipment that has been shipped. ... "Custom FPGA Board for Sale!". Bitcointalk.org. Retrieved January 30, 2013. ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 "BitForce SHA256 Single – Technical Specifications". Butterfly Labs. Retrieved January 30, 2013. ↑ 5.0 5.1 "Products". Butterfly Labs. Archived from the ... FPGA vs GPU vs ASIC Mining Vergleich. FPGA für Bitcoin oder Ethereum Mining? ... Hardware Elektrizität Anpassungsfähig Preis Verfügbarkeit Benutzerfreundlich ; ASIC--- ️ ️: GPU ️ ️ ️ ️ ️: FPGA- ️ ️ ️-Es sieht so aus, als hätten FPGAs in nur 2 der 5 Kategorien einen Vorteil gegenüber GPUs und ASICs, aber einige halten diese in der aktuellen Marktsituation für ...
Finally!! Unboxing of a QUAD FPGA Bitcoin Mining System
Find this and more great products @ http://www.bitminingshop.com My friend purchased an FPGA Miner. Personally, I own a Butterfly Labs Single, if you do too ... This is the video showing the final project of EC551 in Spring semester,2015. This project, Bitcoin mining, is done by group "Bitminers". The group members a... I picked up a few PCI FPGA Cards on eBay for 99p which, apparently, can mine BitCoins at a speed of 21 Ghash/s (once they're correctly configured!) My first attempt at mining 0xBitcoin with the Zilinx VCU1525 FPGA. It's running about 72.5 F at about ~8Gh. This is with the stock cooling fan, and the 8.8Gh... Quad FPGA Bitcoin mining Board unboxing rampone. Loading... Unsubscribe from rampone? ... DIY Bitcoin Mining: Hardware (part1) - Duration: 7:45. Fred Yen 1,607,027 views. 7:45 . Upstate Networks ...